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Later they retracted their position and left the Communist party. The same year she and her husband adopted a little girl, Catherine, who later became herself an analyst. She integrated techniques of group therapy into her analytic practice and together with Diatkine, Lebovici and others created individual psychoanalytic psychodrama. In her writings she devoted herself particularly to the problems of adolescents, the anorexia and the "cold psychosis", i.

Typical for the anorexia is the denial of the real body and its idealizing as an unreal and inaccessible object. The satisfactory incorporation is replaced by the lust of hunger and emptiness. With the cold psychosis the ego is pervaded by the ideal ego, and the external object constitutes a projection of the ideal ego. The only possible relation is a fetishistic relation to the object. Julia Kristeva stands as one of the foremost French proponents of post-structuralism.

She was born in Sliven in Bulgaria as the daughter of Stoyan and Christine Kristev; her father was a physician and a theologian. After studying linguistics at the University of Sofia, she came to Paris at the end of Under the supervision of Lucien Goldmann she completed her doctoral thesis Le texte du roman in She joined Tel Quel , a literary journal inspired by Jacques Derrida, and was a leading member of the editorial board from to , the year of the journal's discontinuation.

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Hoping to connect the aesthetic avant-garde with the revolutionary political movement, the Tel Quel group was in contact with the Communist Party and visited Mao's China in Following this trip Julia Kristeva wrote her book Des chinoises , in which she compared the role of women in Chinese and Western culture. In the midst of the s she went into analysis with Ilse Barande.

Kristeva's theoretical work centres on the investigation of the social symbolic systems. With the help of psychoanalysis and self-reflective structural linguistics, she explores the unconscious mechanisms of symbolic structures, especially those of the language. For Kristeva the symbolic is not a static system but a process, which only functions by excluding something that she identifies, like Lacan, with the feminine.

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The excluded undermines the structures and evades a positive definition. Julia Kristeva presented the basic ideas of her complex thoughts in her most comprehensive theoretical work, Revolution in Poetic Language , which gave her an international reputation. Thus she makes visible the trace of the pre-symbolic - the bodily ground of speech and desire - within the symbolic. According to her, the unconscious is not only structured like a language, as Lacan postulated, but in addition it also contains the memory of the pre-lingual.

Kristeva called this infantile pre-symbolic - first undifferentiated and then accentuated by drive cathexis - the semiotic maternal "chora". After the entry into the symbolic order, the ego remains furthermore exposed to the operations of the semiotic - a source of psychosis as well as of creativity.

Based on her distinction between the semiotic and the symbolic, Kristeva developed her theory of abjection in the s. Abjection originates in the primal repression, when the child has to separate from the mother in order to become subject of the symbolic. What has been the mother, will turn into an abject.

The abject, i. Kristeva's later texts are more concrete and more personal: Psychoanalytic case studies and literary analysis complement each other. Her studies on famous women, especially her trilogy Female genius about the philosopher Hannah Arendt, the psychoanalyst Melanie Klein and the writer Colette, as well as her novels can also be read as autobiographical projects.

According to Kristeva, the analyst writes his "secret autobiography" as metamorphized in each of his interpretations The secrets of an analyst. Paulette Erikson [Erichson, Erickson, Ericson], the daughter of a pharmacist in Colmar in Alsace, was a teacher before she began practising psychoanalysis. In Paulette Laforgue had to undergo a hysterectomy and subsequently could no longer bear children. At the instigation of her husband she also underwent analysis with Sokolnicka and became an analyst herself. Her control supervisor was Heinz Hartmann. She first taught mathematics, when she married Serge Lebovici in , who later became a psychiatrist, psychoanalyst and president of the IPA.

After the end of the war Ruth Lebovici decided to train as a psychoanalyst. She underwent training analysis with Marc Schlumberger and was supervised by Jacques Lacan. Particularly known is Ruth Lebovici's paper Perversion sexuelle transitoire au cours d'un traitement psychanalytique about a patient with phobia, who developed a transitory sexual perversion in the course of a psychoanalytic treatment. Lacan discussed in an exemplary way Lebovici's case study in his Seminar IV on object-relations , proposing that the analyst's interpretation of the transference triggered the acting out of the patient's perverse fantasy.

Such sort of "artefacts pervers", he argued, were the outcome of an analysis in which the place of the symbolic in the relation analyst-analysand was ignored. At the same time she worked at the Fondation Parent de Rosan in Paris, a public institution for the temporary care of young children who had been abandoned by their mothers.

Two of these cases Nadia and Robert were presented by Rosine Lefort at Lacan's Seminar, and they are regarded as remarkably lucid examples of the clinical application of Lacanian concepts. Rosine Lefort worked closely together with her husband, the psychoanalyst Robert Lefort , with whom she published her books. Rosine Lefort's case reports show clearly the existential function of the signifier in the subjectivation.

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According to the Lacanian terminology, the psychotic is stuck in an unmediated relationship with the Real and cut off from meaningful structures, which proceed via the signifier of the Other. For Lefort the analysis of the preverbal infant is particularly suited to show that the subject, before it speaks, "speaks in the Other", where it finds its significant place. Anne Levallois was a jurist before she turned to psychology, anthropology and psychoanalysis in the early s.

The mother of three children her married name was Colot , she participated at that time in literacy campaigns in Senegal. After her return to Paris she completed her diploma in clinical psychology and trained as an analyst with Serge Leclaire. Together with Myriam David and others she explored the relation of single mothers to their first child and subsequently worked as a psychologist at a Salvation Army institution for single mothers.

In she established a psychoanalytic practice in Paris, shortly before she divorced.

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From to she directed the journal Psychanalystes. Anne Levallois was particularly interested in the relation between psychoanalysis, biography and history. Levallois' study on Urbain elucidated the effects of traumatising social conditions on subjectivation. Further main points of Anne Levallois were tranference phantasies and the signifiers of femininity. An anthology of her texts between and was published posthumously under the title Une psychanalyste dans l'histoire.

She spent her early childhood in Colombo, Ceylon, where her father was general consul of the Netherlands. The return of her family to Europe in signified for the little girl the loss of her childhood paradise. She forgot her mother tongue English and the Singhalese words of her nurse when she lived with her French speaking grandfather, and in her unloved new residence in Amsterdam she had to learn Dutch. These experiences shaped Maud Mannoni's central question: how to refind the lost language of childhood. After attending a convent school in Antwerp, Magdalena van der Spoel studied criminology in Brussels.

During World War II she worked with psychotic adolescents at a psychiatric clinic and decided to train as a psychoanalyst. In she married the philosopher and psychoanalyst Octave Mannoni , an analysand of Jacques Lacan and a left-wing intellectual. During the s Maud Mannoni and her husband engaged themselves in fighting for the independence of Algeria. In she met Jacques Lacan, with whom she had her second analysis, and became a Lacanian. During a stay in London she became acquainted with the concepts of Donald W.

Winnicott and Melanie Klein and the anti-psychiatry of Ronald D. Maud Mannoni was able to realise her ideas in by founding the Experimental school of Bonneuil along with Robert Lefort, a residential community for psychotic, retarded and troubled children and adolescents in Bonneuil-sur-Marne.

It was the only anti-psychiatric project in France inspired by the British model. As the directrice of this school she put into practice Lacanian psychoanalysis, anti-psychiatric ideas and Winnicott's concept of a "supporting environment". For Mannoni the disturbed child is a "spokesperson" for the dysfunctional family, whose history is written in the child's symptoms and expressions.

In her view this pathogenic development is reinforced by social exclusion mechanisms. At Bonneuil the children were encouraged to give voice to their fears, destructive feelings and fantasies. Central to Mannoni's therapeutic approach is the cultivation of the capacity to play that makes loss bearable. She seeks to free the child from the suffocating effect of the anxiety and desires of the Other - first of all his mother - by helping him find a personal language in the symbolic order.

Following her study of psychology in Dunedin, Joyce Carrington worked as a vocational and family counsellor in Dunedin and Auckland. In the family settled in England. She met Donald W. Winnicott and attended his course in woman's psychosexuality. She underwent training analysis with Marc Schlumberger and was appointed training and supervising analyst of the SPP in In she became the scientific secretary of the SPP. She underwent another analysis with Michel Renard.

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In the early s she met Sidney Stewart , an American writer and psychoanalyst, who became her second life partner after her separation from Jimmy McDougall. She established a child-therapeutic practice and analysed, under the supervision of Serge Lebovici, a nine-and-a-half-year-old psychotic boy, whose case she described in her book Dialogue with Sammy. Main themes in here writings are: female homosexuality - for the first time discussed by her in her study Homosexuality in women , as well psychosomatic illness and issues of sexual identity and creativity.

In her first book Plea for a Measure of Abnormality she suggested her renowned revision of the Freudian concept of perversion. In Joyce McDougall's view the classical division into neurosis, psychosis and perversion is too rigid to understand sexual deviations, which are linked with narcissistic personality disorders. Instead of "perversion" she prefered the term "neosexualities", i. Joyce McDougall was convinced that all sexual behaviour so bizarre and strange as it might be serves for psychic survival.

She pleaded to accept "deviant" sexuality and not to adapt it to norms by psychoanalysis. In Joyce McDougall's work psychic reality appears like a stage on which the narcissistic and oedipal dramas are played out. Referring to Melanie Klein and Piera Aulagnier , she conceived the metaphor of an inner theatre particularly in her books Theaters of the Mind and Theaters of the Body.

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Her book The Many Faces of Eros deals with the varied forms of human sexuality basing on an inborn bisexuality. For McDougall female homosexuality, for instance, is no pathological deviation, because homosexual wishes of a girl toward her mother are a fundamental component of female development.

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Only the shaping of these wishes is different in the lives of homosexual and heterosexual women. She died at the age of 91 in London. At the time of Judith's birth her mother was still married to Georges Bataille, whom she divorced in Jacques Lacan got divorced from his first wife in and married Sylvia Bataille in Unlike her half-sister Laurence Bataille who had received formal psychoanalytic training, Judith Bataille-Lacan did not undergo analysis, but formed part of the circle of Lacan's disciples since her teens.

Judith Miller played an important role in the Lacanian movement. She studied philosophy at the Sorbonne in Paris, before she began an analysis with Jacques Lacan in , which lasted eight years. During her analysis she became his lover. She left the ECF in She stated that pedagogy which bases on psychoanalysis must end up in a blind alley, because the position of a child analyst is not compatible with that of a pedagogue.

The latter cannot represent a neutral mirror, for he always has - consciously or unconsciously - an educational intention.